DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH MEAT EATING



DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH MEAT EATING 63

A real man eats ' MEAT ' slogan given in many western countries and many asian countries is not that true which caught fire in late 50's and till now advertisement and meat industries are promoting meat eating as ultimate protein gainer and best healthy eating , but this argument given by them is not that trues as there are many problems associated with meat eating specially meat of mammals much more closer to our own ' gene pool ' which means there are many similarity of genes to human gene pool which usually transmit many genetic related issues to humans from animals like ' Mad cow ' diseases , ' Ebola ' and most recent ' Corona virus associated diseases ' which is creating havoc round the globe . There are many genes which are many similar to human genetic gene pool in many cases even the Genetic coordinates which are similar too which re associated to evolutionary links from common ancestor and Now let's see the diseases that are usually associated with meat eating : Several diseases associated to industrial level and general public related directly to domestic meat species of beef meat , pork , lamb and poultry

  • E coli from ground beef .

  • BSE ( Bovine spongiform encephalitis ) from beef cattle .

  • Trichinosis from pork .

  • Scrapie from lamb and mutton .

In addition the meat and food industry are vulnerable to many kind pathogens which are easy to grown on tissues and meat usually meat gets rotten soon due to high level of amino acids and protein present in the meat which easily boost the growth of viruses ( which gets suitable condition due to presence protein and amino acids and cells ) , fungus due to moisture and conditions , bacteria as meat have fibers , protein , amino acids Infection in food industry in meat processing is mainly due to personal hygiene and poor handling of meat and sanitation practices and due to poor sanitation practices the fungus , viruses and bacteria are easily transmitted to meat due to presence of fibers , amino acids , protein which are openly exposed to these microorganisms .

  • food borne infections : Such as salmonella or trichinosis . caused by ingesting food that is contaminated with bacteria , parasite and viruses and prions :

  • Food borne intoxication : Either bacterial , such as Ecoli or chemicals as well as prions too .

Two particularly dangerous foodborne bacteria that can cause serious illness require special attention:

  • Clostridium botulium :which can develop in vacuum-packaged and canned foods

  • Listeria monocytogenes :which occurs due to poor cleaning of machines, dirty floors, and drains

Following is a brief overview of the major risks – in terms of bacteria and illnesses – associated with meat and the meat industry. Some of the bacteria are known to originate from meat; others can and do develop in food processing areas through unhygienic practices.

  • BSE ( Bovine spongiform encephalopathy ): commonly known as mad cow disease, a fatal brain-degenerative disease (encephalopathy) in cattle that causes a spongy degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. BSE has a long incubation period, about two-and-a-half to eight years, usually affecting adult cattle at a peak age onset of four to five years. All breeds are equally susceptible. The disease can be easily transmitted to humans who eat food contaminated by the brain, spinal cord, or digestive tract of infected carcasses. In humans, it is known as the variant ,

Crzenfeldti - jackob diseases : and as of June 2014 it had killed 177 people in the United Kingdom and 52 elsewhere. Controls on high-risk offal (internal organs) were introduced in 1989. The cause was cattle, which are normally herbivores, being fed the remains of other cattle in the form of meat and bone meal (MBM), which caused the infectious agent to spread. Outbreaks of BSE in Canada severely crippled Canadian beef exports, which have only recently been restored. Under Canadian law, it is now illegal to feed cattle MBM. The strictly controls the slaughter of all beef animals over the age of 30 months.

  • Clostridium botulium : an anerobic microorganism (it grows without air) which forms spores that exist over a wide range of temperatures. The organism itself does not cause illness, but the toxin it produces is one of the most deadly known to humankind. The spores can survive in frozen, raw, and precooked food. Although it is not a frequent cause of illness, it is considered the most serious to deal with in the food industry. This nasty organism is found in the intestines of humans and animals and in soil and streams. The major source of botulinum is swollen and damaged canned products and/or air-tight packages such as vacuum-sealed products with low acid foods such as beans, fish, and meats

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can be found naturally in soil and commonly affects domestic and wild animals around the world. Although it is rare in the United States, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Contact with anthrax can cause severe illness in both humans and animals. Anthrax is not contagious, which means you can’t catch it like the cold or flu. How do animals get infected with anthrax? : Domestic and wild animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, antelope, and deer can become infected when they breathe in or ingest spores in contaminated soil, plants, or water. In areas where domestic animals have had anthrax in the past, routine vaccination can help prevent outbreaks. How do people get infected with anthrax? : People get infected with anthrax when spores get into the body. When anthrax spores get inside the body, they can be “activated.” When they become active, the bacteria can multiply, spread out in the body, produce toxins (poisons), and cause severe illness. This can happen when people breathe in spores, eat food or drink water that is contaminated with spores, or get spores in a cut or scrape in the skin. It is very uncommon for people in the United States to get infected with anthrax.

  • Clostridium perfringes : an anaerobic organism that produces heat-resistant spores. It also grows in the temprature of 4°C to 60°C (40°F to 140°F) and may double in numbers in 10 minutes. This bacterium is found in intestinal tracts of humans and animals, in sewage, and in manure, and it is considered widespread. Insects and rodents can also become contaminated. Unwashed hands and dirty clothing are major sources and carriers of the disease. The main food sources affected by . C perfringens are foods high in proteins such as fresh meat of all types, deli items, and cooked meats like stews and gravies that have cooled too slowly.

  • coli: A bacterium found naturally in the intestines of humans or other animals. The strain common to the meat and food industry is E. coli 0157:H7. E. coli does not cause a disease and is not considered parasitic because its source of food is the body waste in the intestinal tract. However, should E. coli gain access to the kidneys, bladder, or other internal organs, it can become parasitic and produce infections that can turn fatal. E. coli outbreaks associated with domestic animals (mainly beef) have strained the meat industry when it has been discovered in ground meat supplies. In addition, E. coli has occurred in milk, cheese, and related foods as well as in plants and plant products irrigated with contaminated groundwater supplies.

  • Listeria monocytogenes : Listeria is commonly found in soil, stream water, sewage, plants, foods made from milk, and processed foods such as hot dogs and deli meats. It can also be found in uncooked meat and vegetables and fruit such as apples and cantaloupes. Animals can also be carriers. Contamination may occur after cooking and before packaging. Listeria is responsible for listeriosis, a rare but potentially lethal foodborne infection. Listeria can grow in temperatures from 4°C to 37°C (40°F to 96°F), which is human body temperature. The bacterium is known to cause meningitis, a potentially fatal disease.

  • SCRAPIE : a fatal disease that affects the central nervous system of sheep and goats. Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). It is similar to BSE, but it is not caused by the animal’s feed. While the exact cause of scrapie is still unknown, the disease is associated with the presence of an abnormal form of a protein called a prion. According to Health Canada, there is no known link between scrapie and human health. However, the CFIA does have a control program in place. The disease seems to present itself differently in different countries. Wasting and debility (weakness) appear to be more prominent clinical features in North America, while pruritus (intense itching) remains the most noted clinical feature in Europe. Scrapie is spread from an infected female to her offspring at birth, or to other animals exposed to the birth environment, through fluid and tissue from the placenta.

  • SALMONELLA TYPHI : Foodborne bacteria with 1,300 types known. One of the most severe infections caused by salmonella is ' TYPHOID FEVER ' . The main sources and carriers of salmonella in the food industry are most poultry, eggs and cracked eggs, shellfish, raw milk, and service workers with unwashed hands. People and animals may be carriers without showing any symptoms.

  • STPHYLOCOCCUS STREPSILS : an anerobic organism (needs air to grow) that causes food poisoning by releasing toxins into food. It does not form spores. However, it may survive for months in the soil and in a frozen state in food. The most common carrier is the human body, particularly through skin abrasions, wounds, infected sinuses, pimples, etc. Raw poultry is also known to be a carrier. Food poisoning usually occurs when already cooked or easy-to-eat food is re-contaminated with staphylococcus. In the food service industry, susceptible products are those high in protein, such as custards, cream-filled bakery goods, sauces, meat and meat products (especially chopped meats), chicken salads, and cheeses. Staphylococcus can grow to enormous numbers on meat without producing changes in colour, odour, or taste if the infected product has not been stored in the safe temperature zones below 4°C (40°F) or above 60°C (140°F).

  • TRICHINOSIS :a disease caused by Trichinella (parasitic nematodes, intestinal worms, and roundworms) that initially enter the body when meat containing the Trichinella cysts (roundworm larvae) is eaten. For humans, undercooked or raw pork and raw dry cured pork products, such as pork salami, have been most commonly responsible for transmitting the Trichinella parasites.

Trichinosis is a foodborne infection and is not contagious from one human to another unless infected human muscle is eaten. However, almost all carnivores (meat eaters) or omnivores (meat and plant eaters), such as bears, can both become infected and, if eaten, can transmit the disease to other carnivores and omnivores. For example, undercooked or raw bear meat can contain living Trichinella cysts. Therefore, if humans, dogs, pigs, rats, or mice eat the meat, they can become infected. In rare instances, larvae in cattle feed can infect cattle. There are six species that are known to infect humans. Today, trichinosis has been virtually eradicated in Canada due to well-managed controls in the Canadian hog industry. Go to link





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